The Republic of Peru gained independence from Spain in 1826. Up until 1979 it alternated between civilian and military rule.
In 1962 a military junta took over from a civilian government and forced fresh elections in 1963 which the Popular Action Party (AP) won. By 1968 politicians were preceived as widely corrupt and another military coup occurred with the junta remaining in power for 12 years until 1980 when fresh elections were held.
In 1980 the AP were returned once more. In 1985 Alan Garcia of the Peruvian Aprista Party (PAP, also known as the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, APRA) won the presidential election. In 1990 Garcia did not stand and Alberto Keinya Fujimori won the presidential election on the Change 90 ticket.
By 1992 Fujimori was said to be frustrated by the slow progress to a free market economy and with the support of the military he dissolved the bicameral parliament and judiciary and he suspended the constitution.
In 1993 President Fujimori established a unicameral Democratic Constituent Assembly, introduced a new constitution which allowed for a unicameral parliament and allowed the president to serve consecutive terms.
In 1995 Fujimori won again with 64.3% of the vote under the ticket New Majority – Change 90 (NM – C90).
In 1999 Fujimori announced that he would run again, this time as candidate for the Peru 2000 alliance. The opposition complained that this would be a third consecutive term but the national election board said that this was only his second term under the amended 1993 constitution.
In the 2000 election Fujimori won the first round but was forced to a second round by Alejandro Toledo who came second. Again the election was considered flawed. Toldeo called on his supporters to boycott the second round but Fujimori reminded people that it was illegal to boycott the election and they could be fined.
When the result came in, Fujimori had won and Toledo’s vote had dropped from 40.24% to 25.67% of the vote. However, invalid and spoilt ballot papers increased from just over 2% of the vote in the first round to just under 30% in the second round which suggests that people had heeded Toldeo’s request.
In July 2000 Fujimori was sworn in, but in the September he announced that he would step down, call fresh elections and not stand again. Two months later he had fled the country and gone back to Japan, the homeland of his parents.
In fresh elections on 8th April and 3rd June 2001 Alejandro Toldeo of Peru Possible (PP) with 53.1% beat Alan Garcia of the Peruvian Aprista Party (PAP, also APRA) with 46.9% and became the next President of Peru.
In the parliamentary election Peru Possible was also the largest party with 45 of the 120 seats in the Congress of the Republic of Peru.
By now the president could only serve one term and therefore Toldeo was not eligible to stand a second time.
The 2006 presidential election was fought out between Alan Garcia, candidate of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (PAP), and Ollanta Humala of Union for Peru (UPP). Alan Garcia won with 52.63% of the vote.
In June 2011 Ollanta Humala stood once more for the Presidential election and this time he won in the second round, taking 51.45% of the vote. Humala’s manifesto for the first round was strongly socialist but in the second round the manifesto was toned down. In government Ollanta Humala has proven to be more pragmatic and his government has continued with the market friendly policies that have transformed the country over the past twenty years into one of the most successful in South America.
The President is elected for a five year term and may serve a further non consecutive term.
Peru has a unicameral Congress of the Republic with 130 seats (increased from 120 seats in 2011) elected for five year terms.
The Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2016 places Peru at joint 101st out of 176 countries with a CPI 2016 score of 35 (where 100 is least corrupt).